Due to the difficulties capturing a live speaker's words, it is possible this transcript may contain errors and mistranslations. APNIC accepts no liability for any event or action resulting from the transcripts.

Wednesday, August 26, 0900-1030

Hello everyone. We're about to start the session in about five minutes. If you take your seats and settle down, the session will start in five minutes.

ZHAO WEI: Let's get this session started. Good morning distinguished guests, friends and colleagues. This is Wendy Wei from CNNIC and I'm going to chair this session. It is great to see the crowd here in this early morning. We didn't expect you to come in this early from last night, but thank you.

First of all, I would like to extend our thanks to our special guests from the chairman of the Internet associate of China, Madame Qi Heng. The deputy general of the office. Thank you for taking your time to attend our very busy meeting.

Also at this time, I would like to take this moment to thank our sponsors for their generous supporting of this meeting. They are China Mobile, China Telecom, China Unicom and also dot Asia.

As usual, this session is being web cast. As you can see by my side, and also, audio feed. If anyone wants to participate, you can join the jabber chat to chat a bit more.

OK, at the start of the session, I would like to invite the Director General of APNIC, Mr Paul Wilson to give us the greeting speech. A big round of applause for Paul, please.


PAUL WILSON: Thank you very much, Wendy, and thank you to everyone here for being here. Welcome again to APNIC 28 here in Beijing.

We're starting today with a very interesting session and identify' also like to thank all of our distinguished speakers who have agreed to come along and contribute to this topic of the state of the Internet in China, which I think will be a very interesting and important for all of us to hear. We'll get started on that shortly, but I also hope that you will all stay with us for the next three days of the meeting, because we do have quite a packed program for you this week at the 28th APNIC open policy meeting.

So, for instance, after this session, we've got a long period during this day for the APOPS group, which is the Asia pa Pacific Operational Forum and there will be a lot of topics of a technical nature to hear about today. We've also got tomorrow, the open policy meeting, the Policy SIG sessions which we'll be hearing about some really important policy discussions which are open discussions for all of us to participate in, and we'll be talking about, as usual at this meeting, we'll be talking about IP addressing policies in a lot of detail, and just at this time with the exhaustion of IPv4 address space, the transition to IPv6 which is quite a challenge for all of us. This will be an important day for you all tomorrow.

And then on Friday, we also have the APNIC member's meeting. That is called the member meeting, but it is something that is open to everyone. You can hear a lot more about the activities of the APNIC Secretariat and how APNIC as a community is going, and we'll also have various other sessions and social events that I hope you'll participate in, and you will see all of the details in your meeting program.

So, I've personally been to Beijing quite a number of times before, but this is the first time we've had the APNIC policy meeting here in main land China, and I'm here, joined by a group, a contingent of APNIC staff. We are here to serve you as the community of APNIC, and if there's anything at all that you need this week, I hope that you'll feel free to come and approach us, and particularly also for members - we're running the member Helpdesk, so any service questions and especially, of course, in relation to your IP addressing requests, you can please feel free to take the opportunity to talk directly with the APNIC staff who can help you. So, I'm very happy to be here for that reason as well.

I would also like to ask for the help from some of you, at least, this week in providing APNIC with guidance about the coming here and more. As you may or may not know, we conduct surveys of the APNIC wider membership and community, and these have been conducted by a great old friend of APNIC, Dr John Earls who works here. He is here this week to continue the process is some face-to-face interviews about operational interviews assisted by Richard Brown and Connie Chan. And we've got a list of people to speak to directly, and if anyone is willing and able to help with the process to provide input. On the shorter term in the future of APNIC, what we're doing in the next year, I would very much appreciate your help and contribution to that.

So, without any further ado, I should let us get on. As I said, we're here in China. As you know, China is now home to the home to the largest number of Internet users in the world. The pace of growth here and society and industries is phenomenal and incredible and unique, and I think this next session about the Internet in China will show you that the Internet in China now is very different from what it was a year ago or even yesterday, and we'll hear a lot about how this growth is happening. So, I will pass back to Wendy so that we can talk about that. Thank you very much, again.


ZHAO WEI: Way thank you, as superior department, MIIT has been supporting CNNIC. This morning, we have the deputy director general of telecommunications administration from MIIT, Mr Liu Jie.

LIU JIE: (Speaks in Chinese) TRANSLATION: Ladies and gentlemen, good morning. Because I am not very good in English, director Liu, I'm going to speak in Chinese and have someone to translate it to you. So, it's my great honour to attend this meeting on behalf of the Bureau of Telecommunications and Administration of MIIT of China, I would like to take this opportunity to express my warm welcome to the participants and look at the Internet in China and other Asia-Pacific regions.

LIU JIE: (Speaks in Chinese)

TRANSLATION: We have witnessed the booming of Internet in the world with the economy, community and culture. With the economic prosperity and the development in the Asia-Pacific region, China has also achieved the great success of Internet development. According to the latest CNNIC statistics, by the end of June 2009, the Internet users in China have reached 338 million, of whom 320 million are users. And 1.96 million all in the world.

LIU JIE: (Speaks in Chinese)

TRANSLATION: The Internet penetration rate in China has reached the point of 25.5%. With relevant agencies and business users, the Internet applications are becoming more diverse than before. Of all of the Internet applications, instant messaging, search engines, online games and e-mails are mostly used by Chinese users with applications over 50%. In addition to that, the business users have seen a rapid growth where the Internet has a profound influence over the economy and associate in China.

LIU JIE: (Speaks in Chinese)

TRANSLATION: As the Internet penetrates into the community, China and other nations have been rising with IP addresses and other Internet infrastructure resources. By the end of June 2009, China has consumed IPv4 address resources with 3.75 million within half a year. And the address is still widening in China. we launched the 3 G mobile service earlier this year, and with the mobile Internet services deeper and more comprehensive and explosive growth expected to come in the mobile surfing and other Internet applications triggering new demand for IP addresses.

LIU JIE: (Speaks in Chinese)

TRANSLATION: For the address problems which is the international concern, the Chinese Government has got a made of efforts. In 2003, under the effort of many ministries and scientific research institutions, we initiate the project or China's next generation Internet which is the largest next generation Internet.

LIU JIE: (Speaks in Chinese)

TRANSLATION: Many institutions and ministries have come to a consensus that the transition from IPv4 to IPv6 in the evolution to the v6 in the Internet. The Government research institutions have been actively exploring the strategy and planning of the next generation Internet. Important issues including v6 have been under research due to the global information structure. And the importance of IP addresses on the development of the Internet, we're looking forward to co-operating with all of the stakeholders and management in the communication and operation with you.

LIU JIE: (Speaks in Chinese)

TRANSLATION: APNIC as an important operation managing Internet resources in the Asia-Pacific region has looked at the infrastructure resources like IP address resource management and others related to the safety and development of the Internet. APNIC 28 held in Beijing has provided all of us here an opportunity and a platform to enhance mutual understanding and co-operation within China's Internet community in the Asia Pacific region. We look forward to harmonious and rapid growth in the Asia-Pacific region, looking at the overall combatively in the Asia-Pacific region.

APNIC 28 we look forward to success.


ZHAO WEI: Thank you, Mr Liu. China's first network connection is actually initiated from the Chinese Academy of Sciences, so we can say that the Chinese Academy of Sciences is a pioneer in the development of Chinese Internet. Next, I would like to invite the deputy director general of the General Office of the Chinese Academy of Science, Mr Ding Eryou.

DING ERYOU: (Speaks in Chinese)

TRANSLATION: Ladies and gentlemen, good morning. I have the same concern as Director Liu just now, and considering it is the first time to hold the APNIC meeting in China, I would like to use the Chinese to give the speech.

DING ERYOU: (Speaks in Chinese)

TRANSLATION: It's a great honour of mine to attend APNIC 28. This particular event of the Asia-Pacific Internet community and it has gathered top Internet specialists from China and abroad. On behalf of the Chinese academy of sciences, I wish to deliver my sincere welcome to everyone here today.

DING ERYOU: (Speaks in Chinese)

TRANSLATION: As one of the greatest inventions made in the last century, the Internet has a far-reaching influence on human lives on production and popularising places, in particular sciences and technologies with this open and sharing spirit. And the Chinese Academy of Sciences as China's top academy institute has not only experienced and propelled the fast growth of the Internet in China, but also the beneficiary of it.

DING ERYOU: (Speaks in Chinese)

TRANSLATION: The Internet was first introduced in China, it was used for scientific research. The former generation for Chinese scientists quickly recognised the significance of the Internet for the scientific research. And access to the global Internet, the Chinese research findings can be quickly known to the overseas counterparts and those in the world can be shared in a timely manner. On April 20, 1994, the NCFC project or China Science and Technology Project by the China Academy of Sciences was connected to the Internet. Similarly, China's entry into the Internet era from there on. The China Academy of Sciences has been involved in the Internet in China since then.

DING ERYOU: (Speaks in Chinese)

TRANSLATION: We'll be very glad to fine in the past ten years, the rapid growth has resulted in tremendous achievements in the Internet in China. Breakthroughs have been made in the Internet applications, Internet users and great accomplishments have been made in IP addresses, domain names and other infrastructure resources. Currently, the Internet has had significant fundamental structures to drive forward China's implementation.

DING ERYOU: (Speaks in Chinese)

TRANSLATION: We are now in the era of informationisation, networking and globalisation. The Internet is why they're using in scientific research, diversifying its development such as interdisciplinary development and looking at the trans-regional development. The development of the Internet has helped accumulate the information to disseminate faster than ever before, creating the basis for breakthroughs in sciences and technologies.

The Chinese Academy of Sciences is enduring the construction of the basic fundamental structure, especially in high speed Internet, the large scale super-computing and data centre for the science and research based on the Internet, and to construct the digital academy for innovations in China to help with the development of the science and technology of the world.

DING ERYOU: (Speaks in Chinese)

TRANSLATION: Today, the Internet communities in the Asia-Pacific regions are here to share the development on the infrastructure developments. I'm confident that the development of the Internet as scientific research is not only for one nation and one region. Instead, it is common career for man kind. And looking at the Internet development can be realised for the benefit of all man kind. I hope that APNIC 28 held in Beijing will become the platform of communications to enhance the understanding of the Internet colleagues, and also to provide a terrific opportunity to help with the information in the whole Asia-Pacific region.

DING ERYOU: (Speaks in Chinese)

TRANSLATION: I wish the meeting a complete success.

ZHAO WEI: Thank you. As the local host, next, I would like to welcome the Director General of CNNIC, Mr Mao Wei to give the greeting speech. Big round of applause for Mr Mao.

MAO WEI: Our distinguished guests delegates. Good morning, at the 60th anniversary of the People's Republic of China, we are happy to be here with the APNIC open policy meeting in Beijing. On behalf of CNNIC, the local host of the meeting, I would like to express our warmest welcome. As one of the five Internet registries in the world, APNIC allocates and manages IP addresses and the relevant number resources. And looking at the Asia-Pacific region in the world. Among the way, looking at the Internet organisation in China, including CNNIC, have kept good communications and contact with APNIC and build a co-operative long-term relationship over the years.

It is true, our historic moment of APNIC and holding its 28th meeting in Beijing. We heartfully welcome APNIC to come to China. The convening of APNIC 28 in Beijing is expected with the outcome of co-operation and development of the Internet which has closed the borders of nations and regions.

When facing all the emerging issues and the challenging and the building of the harmonious global Internet, the challenging Internet can't grow without that.

They commonly share a mission to pull us together. In recent years, the world has witnessed the achievements we have made on the Internet development in China. Three important fingers into the user population. The broadband user and the registration of China's CCOD has helped with the space and the CCTOD domain name.

Cline, as a major member of the global Internet community is positioned to take up more responsibility for the development of global Internet. Holding APNIC meeting in Beijing will help to promote the mutual understanding between the Chinese Internet community and that of the world. That's enhancing the growth of the Internet in the region. Looking at the China Internet community can take the chance to involve in the discussion and construction of the global Internet community, offering recommendations for popular issues, such as IP address allocation into the Internet technologies and management policies, thus contributing their efforts in building a stable, prosperous and creatable Internet.

The future trade of global development calls for more deeper collaboration, so, I'm confident that the opportunities for CNNIC, along with other members of the Chinese Internet community to work with APNIC will become broader, deeper and more open. Let us take this convention as an opportunity to create a brighter future for the Internet in China, and in the Asia-Pacific region. In conclusion, I want to send APNIC and give the support from you. I look forward to having a valuable and a meaningful discussion with experts and friends on the subject of China and the AP regions into that development.

I wish your visit to Beijing will be present and awarding. Thank you, thank you all of you.

ZHAO WEI: Thank you. The China Internet development is inseparable in the support of Internet Society of China. For the next 20 minutes, we will have Madame Hu Qiheng from the Internet Society of China to talk about her prospect view. She's the vice President of China Association of Science and Technology. She has engaged herself into the early stage of Internet development in China. A big round of applause for Madam Hu.

MADAME HU QIHENG: Good morning, everybody. I'm going to brief the Internet in China, it is a very difficult task because it is so rich with experiences.

The open door policy provided the opportunity to know more about the world, so I think the driver, the first motivation for China to fight for connecting to the Internet was size and technology. The need for cheaper data exchange in size and technology collaborations.

I will tell you a very little part of the early experimental practices in networking to the world. Including the early experimental practices, including many, many things, but just list a very few of them. The North China Information Institute and Karslure University, they succeeded in sending the e-mail from China to Germany and then to the world in September 1987. It is very important, because this day was, by voting, indicated as the Chinese festival last year, I think. This year in September, we will have the first Chinese festival on September 14. And the High Energy Physics Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences and SLAC in Stanford University, they've made data exchange by X.25 since 1986, and then also connected to the DS Net through the Department of Energy.

This is where you see the original e-mail text. You see the sender is headed by Professor Huang Li. Unfortunately he passed away.

I would like to remember with you early support we have we have enjoyed with the international scientific community, or rather the Internet community. To get the understanding of the permission from the US Government for China to be connected. Many efforts from made. Many important conferences in the Internet field our Chinese scientists made great efforts. Pram, a Professor of Chinese Academy I sciences, Qian Hualin, he discussed with many people to get the understanding of allowing China to be connected. And the most important progress was made on a meeting made after the INET 93. And that is the CCIRN and after the INET meeting convened, it made a big issue of China connecting to the Internet, a topic of the meeting.

All the speakers on this meeting supported China. So today, when we look back to the early days, we always feel grateful for those very effective supports.

And I would like to tell you some of the activity from the Chinese Government. The NCFC just mentioned by Mr Ding Eryou from the Academy, the NCFC is a national project headed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences including Beijing University. The NCFC steering committee raised the funds for the international connection. So many national departments, like the Ministry of Science and Technology National Planning Commission and looking at the Internet. And the State Council of China proved the report of Chinese Academy of Sciences on the international connection to the Internet.

and then, the last hit was in April. In April taking the chance of Sino-US S and T collaborative Communication Meeting. I myself visited the NSF and got their decisive support.

This is a letter from the NSF congratulating ES Net on the service in China. In 1994, the NCFC project opened a 64 K international dedicated line to the Internet. Achieved its functional connection to the Internet. China has been officially recognised, it became a country with a full connection to the Internet.

CCTLD, it was there with the help of Professor Werner Zorn, as the 77th country in the Internet community. It's been trusted to the volunteer Professor Werner Zorn until July of 1994. In July 1994, was set up CNNIC with the authorisation of the Government in Chinese academy of sciences and in 2001, was established the Internet Society of China. A gild for the organisations interested in the Internet. July 2002, ISC and CNNIC made a successful ICANN meeting in Shanghai. I believe many of you have participated in that.

And I would like to very briefly, to tell you some of the activities of the ISC, Internet Society of China.

It established that the Internet Copy right Union organised the drafting and the publishing of the Pledge of China Internet Copy right Self Discipline established the illegal and negative information reporting centre which received many, many reports from the public. Actively carried out anti-malware work and looked at the detailed rules for malware and anti-malware self discipline convention. Build the integrated spam treatment report centre and regularly publish the black list of the spam IP address and the spam investigation report.

I would like to tell you that we are delighted to know, by the report of SOFOS, a very good firm that makes good statistics, China stepped down from, from the top fifth country for 2009. The information accessibility, the ISC also pays attention to disadvantaged groups, including the disabled people. Launched 100,000 Blind People Learn Computer. Carry out the campaign of web accessibility for the Beijing Olympics and Paralympics in 2008 for disabled people. Advance in the construction of the information accessibility standards for the demand of disabled people.

It's very difficult to summary the change in the society, because of the Internet but I think I can tell you something. First, the Chinese Government paying great attention to the Internet. And you see this as the number one leadership of the Chinese leader Mr, Mr Hu Jintao talks with the citizens online, and they look at the great collective of public opinion of the Internet, and it is and they are very highly valued in their roles played by the Internet. This is Premier Hu Jintao. And the Internet is providing a very special way to make the plain people's voice be heard to the top level leadership. - perhaps you know, perhaps you don't know. That is the biggest website platform for shopping. And originated by the Ali Baba, a Chinese company. They achieved an annual turnover which is exceeding the annual turnover of Wal-mart in China. Ta has over 80 million registered user, many of whom are full time sellers. They open their shops over this platform, making their earning and life, relying on the Internet. So it is a great thing for Chinese people.

This is to show a small story to show the role of the Internet in the disaster relief. Last year, the Wenchuan earthquake, an urgent task was to find the place for the rescue helicopter. A girl found the place and she posted a message on the net, and then the message was promptly forwarded and at last, adopted and heard by the rescue force.

Also, it's even more difficult to predict the future. And especially if the future is related with the Internet. But I think, I believe that we will see in China, the further shift of the dominant application from entertainment to e-business and e-learning and so on, and e-culture and so on. And a further shift of the Internet acknowledgement.

The shift of the speed from broadband to high speed. Shift of the device for connection from PC to mobile phone and others. The network is becoming ubiquitous, achieving any time, anywhere, anyone. We have the national project for "Connection in Every Village." And the fulfilment is over 98%. I think that MI IT officials, who know it very precisely, but I think it is over 98% now. In every Chinese village, we will have a connection to the Internet. The farmers find their market information from the connection, find the best sell and best investment, best partners over the Internet.

Thank you for your attention and we wish the full success for APNIC 28. Thank you.


ZHAO WEI: I got feedback saying the voice is not high enough. So for the following speakers, if they can - if for the following speakers if they can raise their voice to a level above their normal, I think that will be OK for the audience. We move to the next session. For the following 30 minutes we will have three distinguished speakers to talk about global Internet. They're going to talk about their experience about what they have done in the past and what they think about the future.

For each speaker, we have 10 minutes for them to finish their presentation. If it's too long, I apologise. I'll have to do the soft and gentle way to switch off the microphone. I do apologise if I do that. What we're doing or going to do is after each speech, we're going to take questions and comments from floor. If someone comes to the microphone, please state your name and speak loud and clear for the record. Next, we will have the first speakers, Jian Zhang, director of international business department of CNNIC. She will talk about Internet in China, analysis on the Internet user. So a big round of applause for her.

JIAN ZHANG: Apologies because my speech is probably not going to be over in 10 minutes but I'll try my best to fit in the time slot. So we'll see. The topic given to me is a huge topic - Internet in China. So it's hard to handle but I'm going to try. After Madame Hi, I will talk about Internet status in China. And later on I'm going to cover some interesting features of Internet development in China. I hope this won't worry too much.

By the way, can everybody hear me in this room? Am I loud enough? OK.

The global financial crisis has battered many industry in China. The Internet's still growing strong, especially some from developmental resources. This chart shows from June 2008 to June 2009, all datas keep on growing rapidly. IP addresses, international users and websites still keep on growing. The members of Internet users has grown 33.5% in the year. Total websites have gone up higher. This shows there are more domain names. This chart shows the growth chain of Internet users in China. I would like to point out two milestones we reached last year. The first one is in June 2008, the member of Internet user reached 253 million. In China, the number one country in terms of Internet population. The second milestone is at the end of 2008, China's international Internet penetration rate has surpassed the average for its first time.

Right now the penetration rate is 25.5%. So higher than the worst average.

We have big population, so probably the number of Internet user won't impress much but actually penetration rate really is a lot to us.

This page shows some characteristics of Internet users. The Internet has been more and more popular around users of lower education level.

ZHAO WEI: Our next speaker is Mr Bill Huang. He's the senior vice-president of CTO. I'm sure he has and will talk about Mobile Internet to share with all the audience this morning. A big round of applause for Bill, please.


BILL HUANG: Good morning, ladies and gentlemen. It's my pleasure to be here at the first APNIC meeting in China. I was very excited to hear this meeting was going on. And I hope my presentation here will trigger a new wave of innovation. The spirit of the Internet is the spirit of innovative engineering. The most important thing we have learned from the Internet is by opening and sharing mobile. And by giving more, we get more. So, my IP Go Mobile. The impact of the global Internet for the future of IP in our opinion will be profound. And a lot remains to be done.

I will cover three areas. One in the development trend and obviously this is going to be very clear, so I will save some time, and I only have 10 minutes to make my points. Two, mobile Internet oriented future IP network. Some requirements and some conclusions.

So I have used this slide many times. I've been asked this question - what is mobile Internet? If you ask 10 people to give you 10 different answers, then now you have mine.

Mobile Internet is not another Internet. It's not another Internet you create specifically for mobile network. Mobile Internet facilitates mobile access to Internet. So now we understand there's going to be one Internet, whether mobile, fixed or virtual. So there's going to be one Internet. But it facilitates mobile access to the Internet and this is very, very important. Enabling this is not available in fixed Internet services. Mobile technology enables anywhere, any time. Internet access, has an additional advantage to user authentification, location informations, presence and roaming, etc. So Melbourne Internet is not just mobile Internet is not just Internet. It's more than Internet. It has provided capabilities and functional requirements that has never been present in a definition of the requirements of the original Internet.

So, people say, "That's going to be a lot of work. Why should I do it?" Well, think about a the number of cell phones. The number of cell phones in the world is a magnitude higher than the number of PCs. So I have used the CP, cell phones down in the right corner. It's greatly bigger than PC. It is. There are 4.5 billion and growing number of mobile cell phone users. As we know, with the technology advance that we're having on display, rapidly, the lowest cost Internet access device and computing unit will become a Smart Phone. And that is an unquestionable technology trend. So we understand that. We have to do mobile internet because it's going to be the biggest. And everyone will have one.

The business of mobile Internet in some ways brings us in to a new era from the operator's point of view, we understand voice services will become an application on the Internet. Whenever you have experienced that. Internet access, Internet applications, Internet information services will become the direction of the future of mobile services.

Open and sheer development model by the Internet community is exactly what operator needs. Remember, we are in the business of providing services. We're not in the business of selling software. We're not in the business of selling power. So we're in the business of providing services if the capabilities and the tools to enable these services and open. Sometimes open means free.

OK. This reduces the barrier of using this service. So we understand that. And, definitely, we hope to enhance our users' experience.

How, clearly from the operator's point of view, we have been traditional network infrastructure operator. So we build network infrastructures. We build a less emphasis on terminals and less emphasis on applications in some way. Why? Because, remember, operator used to be telephone companies. We thought telephone was the application. But now in the Internet era, telephone is one of the applications. So, the infrastructure for mobile Internet will transform. It will constitute a network infrastructure. But it will also add terminal. Terminal is now an infrastructure. And plus applications are also infrastructure. So you will see in the future mobile operators, they will put focus in delivering Internet experience by building infrastructures that will cover all these experiences.

What is the IP requirement? You know, I constantly challenge my team to say, "OK, tell me what I can get every mobile user to have an IP address. "If you look at the average IP situation, we can't give an IP address to 4.5 billion users now. There's not enough. So we have to give them something. So we give them virtual proxy IP address. Firewall people are very happy with this. But consumers are not happy. So we need more emphasis. Secondly, we need more security and reliability. Clearly, people have made a business out of that and people have made a business fighting that. But in some way, I think if we can authenticate every host, we can provide security. So I think mobile networking and mobile Internet will be more secure because we have end to end identification. In some way, it will make the world a better place to live.

Next, we need more carrier grade services. If I have another bandwidth, I don't need a carrier grade service. So it's always better to have the bandwidth, than to control it. But he was not at the era of this. If he had seen P 2 P he would probably not publish that paper. In an era of maximising resources, using proprietary and sometimes illegal software will create a demand that is far beyond what we call the statistical model of the Internet. The software breaks the statistics model. If you ask China Telecom who provide the major outgoing gateways, if you follow the bandwidth, you'll be filled out in a week. Something has to be done so that we have a more better ecosystem. We don't have 1% of the user using 50% of the network bandwidth. It's clearly not economical to do that.

What does today's IP network mean for the requirements of the future? Clearly, we see many problems. The number one problem was, I talked a little earlier. And the number two problem, is just the tip of the iceberg. So DNS attack, sometimes it breaks down and it's probably not a good idea to have some of the key things break down so easily. And, finally, some of the problems that we're seeing, clearly it is not something of a fault of the technology. These are evolutionary things that happen now and probably were not foreseen before. One of the things we had is if we had an earthquake, and it has happened a number of times. People have earthquake and then Internet traffic and the volume is rapid. And everything kind of broke down.

How do we solve some of the problems and get all these issues sorted out so we have better availability for Internet?

So you look at today's IPv4. We have studied IPv4. We have studied IPv6. Frankly IPv6 is better, but it is not good enough so that everybody want to do IPv6. The problem is IPv4 is running out of address. But, we have to activate IPv6 because we're running out of address.

I tell you, worldwide, we have until June 2011. I think because now when people see that they will be concerned, maybe we will go beyond that. But, we face the reality of not being able to give IP addresses to the users that are all there. So, clearly, IP addresses are in great shortage, so we need to move to IPv6. Always online and many other services require the capability such as the next generation machine-to-machine communication. We haven't even talked about this. What about IP addresses for machines? It's not there. There are still billions of them out there. My challenge to our engineers, to our network experts is how do we solve our problems? Current IPv6 migration strategy does not meet the requirements. So what are other requirements?

The number one requirement is application compatibility. I can tell you, we have a list of a user calling - if we send them to IPv6, his cell phone applications will not work. And he's going to come back, he's going to call and cry and we have switched him back to IPv4. We don't have a smooth application compatibility strategy.

Second, there will be a big long IPv4 line - so we can't assume they will disappear. We should assume IPv4 will be there forever. And that should be the assumption to begin with and it was not the assumption when we started IPv6. And now we could do it. Seriously, I can tell you guys, I really wanted to do it, but we couldn't.

So, what can we learn from this? Let's look at the mobile world. IP level evolution will benefit from the advances of the mobile world. If you look at the mobile world from 2 G to 3 G, from unified core networks and service transparency, everything the standard body has been trying to do is to create compatibility and user transparency. Why should the user know he's in IPv4 or IPv6? He should know. Why can we do that? Why can we create a new IP world and we silently translate and replace the infrastructure with IPv6 and users are not aware of that?

So that's a question that I pose to all of us, including myself. How do we solve that problem? We need to solve this problem to move forward. And now we cannot do it. And that's what we do. We have to solve these problems.

So we tried to bring together IETF and 3GPP to join hands. We have two proud organisations that think they're on top of the world. IETF definitely on top of the world. 3GPP definitely on top of the world. We have 4.5 billion users and IETF says we have 1.5 billion. It doesn't matter. It's all billion-plus users.

OK, we're here. We represent the consumers. We want solutions. So, we have made a number of interesting innovations. There are many innovations in the IPv6 world, like many others. We hope to get everybody to come together and say, "Let's have a clean sheet of paper." Let's put solutions together and say what can we done and what can be done fast? We don't want to wait another 10 years to develop something spectacularly elegant. We want something quick and dirty. But it works. So we want something quick and dirty and it works. And I'm not saying when we invent it it's quick and dirty but we have a solution - it's PNAT. For details, you can talk to our guys. But the solution is not meant to be the agenda, it's meant to be taking a break. To bring this out. We want to solve this problem.

We have now been working on the prototype and we hope to work with many others to create application backwards compatibility, so that we can migrate network to a pure IPv6 without user being aware of it.

We're also looking at a number of other research. I want to call for everyone's attention in another area, it's DNS. I hope we understand DNS is not in the ideal state of being. I keep asking many people and, "Don't worry about it, it's done, forget about it." So, it's not working. Try to get 4.5 billion people and see what happens with the DNS. Nobody is doing the calculation. 3 million, 4 million, 10 million - yeah, it's working. What about 4.5 million? Plus, DNS works for person who never changes the IP address. What about the person who changes their IP address every five seconds? Somebody, how about Mobile World. We have solved it, it's called HOR. So somebody does something and that's what I'm calling for. I'm calling for DNS innovation. I've been calling for revolution in DNS.

We should work on the next generation DNS to facilitate mobile Internet. If we don't do that, mobile Internet will not happen. Finally, we must think together, because 3GPP is thinking one thing and IETF is thinking another. So we have two worlds of people who sometimes have a party together. We create solutions and we call it a gateway. I think it is still not good. We need to have a transparent, insightful and building mechanism within IP network technology to support this. We need to emerge IP technology in to the next generation of 3GPP standard. So we need to think that IP is a mobile. And, clearly, today's IP is non-mobile.

So we have started a number of efforts, initiatives. One initiative we've called for is generic mobility management protocol. And it was to enhance mobile IP and enhance the GDSN. So we will have this. WiFi, GSN, 3 G or future LG to have mobility. But today we don't. We have a phone. If you look at a telephone, like an iPhone with a WiFi. GSM or 3G. The GSM works OK, but the GSM on the WiFi doesn't work correctly. You have to add a whole new access and it doesn't work together. We have to solve those problems.

So, by working and solving all those problems, we will have a wonderful future. We will have everyone in the world with mobile Internet capability. Either in their next generation phones or in their next generation PCs or in their next generation electronics appliances, or even as a pace-maker in their heart and it will happen.

To conclude, we need to work together. And we need to work together to create the infrastructure and we need to work together to provide a smooth migration. Thank you very much.


ZHAO WEI: Thank you for the excellent presentation. We are not taking questions for this time but I'm sure we have questions and comments from the floor but do please join them during the tea break time. For the next, we will have Mr Liu Dong from BII to give us an excellent presentation. His talking is Green Communication Control Network. A round of applause for him, please.

LIU DONG: Ladies and gentlemen, I think the APNIC meeting, I attended 15 years ago. I'm very happy to have see APNIC 28 being hosted in Beijing and it's a great opportunity for us to be here. And to have a presentation to share my topic. It's next generation internet and IPv6 migrated. The next generation Internet development and green IT is a Chinese national strategic brands for Government and industry hope to build a new innovation ecosystem. China plays an important role in IPv6 and hopes to contribute to the development of the next generation Internet around the world.

I will have a general introduction. IPv6 local activity and new application about IPv6. So, I think from the CNNIC and the general introduction and the general Internet user and the mobile Internet, we can see some slides. I just see that 90% and the user, the user of broadband is a very big demand for our IP clients. For this year, there are some amazing projects in China. And my personal opinion, with the mobile users in years will jump.

So, these are my main topics. It is China. How can China promote IPv6?

So, my answer is the China Next Generation Internet, it's from 2007. And from the eight R eight ministries. It's the biggest IPv6 network in the world. In the 2007 and our President Hu Jintao says the development of the next generation should be the strategic action plans for IPv6. This is a CNGI, a meeting we held in November of the last year. We can see the roadmap and some other things.

So how about government's policy promoting next generation Internet industry. So last year the 2008 central government NDRC, quickly start projects in to IPv6 services and applications. In these projects, the Government and the industry hope to chair the three major targets.

At first, we want to upgrade the CNGI. And continuing to promote next generation Internet more applications. The second is how to view the innovation ecosystem. The third part is to promote IPv6 service. The commercialization transfer to the next edition. It's the Government's goal, at least, before the 2010 500,000 IPv6 users should be deployed.

At the 100 top websites, it must support IPv6. In this year, our President Hu Jintao wants to approve the next generation of Internet, next generation Internet to promote the demand and promote electronic information industry. So Government, want to include this. CNGI is a very important part of this field.

This slide here is an introduction about the IP global broadband activity and the IPv6 logo. It is for the IPv6 development for IPv6 products. BII has a test centre for this profile. In this June, the forum launched a new program, IPv6 enabled to promote IPv6 services, enabled developments.

We launched IPv6 www.globalprofile in June. Only in two months, we had 350 applications.

We have 200 more. A lot of famous IPv6 websites have support this program, such as Soho, to incorporate this. With official IPv6, on official websites. And BUPT.

On June 22, we announced ISP local program to promote ISP support IPv6. We launched it and now we have a global 22 applications from the big ISP from worldwide. Now we have gathered 22 the local business now.

In the major ISP in China, like China Telecom, China Unicom and CERNET.

This is a structure of the new local profile and at this moment we have www. and ISP logo now. The program is very good step, and the right decision. IPv6 needs to be the intelligence in the whole new world.

So applications, in the past Olympic Games, using these activities. So this size is our intelligent sensor and control service. This is China Netcom and BII provide IPv6 and IPv4. We did this in 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. We work together to provide in over 48 Olympic cities in Beijing and other sites in Beijing and other cities. BII works to get this ready. This picture is to show it.

So, at this moment, there has been a lot of IPv6 new users and resources and a lot. So, how we have some solutions - we try to use it free and how to promote IPv4 users to access IPv6? So we want a solution. You can use this and we will have the IP address, then they can join the IPv6 Internet.

With the IPv6 enable program, we also had our IPv6 website upgrade services. We know the end-users is a life scale. It's a lifesize, more end-users you support, the more websites.

OK, we also have other applications. Such as 6Mobile. We can use the 3G for applications. So each mobile phone can have a server. We also have six-Device similar with 6 mobile. We also have six-ID services.

At the last slide, the last few slides, I give an introduction about the development of IPv6 in China. We can see this. So what should be the next step?

So why green IT? The Government industry is want to become the action plan. IPv6 plays an important growth in the world. IPv6 fields can influence. Intelligent transport, intelligent building, industrialisation and informisation.

So this is, we realise the important roles that IPv6 plays. And emergency reduction several years ago. In the middle of 2008, we began the job of the global standard and the framework of the IEEE. The name of the standard is called uGCCNET. Ubiquitous Green Community Control Network.

So this is a picture that shows the pilot projects and the demonstration of the Green IT using this. In the next year, At the Shanghai World Expo, and at Shanghai University and the Tsinghua University. And the new agriculture applications in Hunan Province.

So this is a region of the IPv6. It could reach everybody in the future, everywhere, to provide a green, friendly environment for human being. We want a grid that works.

Today, China industrialisation upgrade process. And we need to supply domestic demands to promote and build a green society, an energy-saving concept. We believe IPv6 is the key to reduce the amounts of the force in the global economy. As the world's largest Internet user country, I think China hope to become the one of the engines and flagships to the new Internet economy. I think we hope to become an innovative centre and look forward to more cooperations with the world. That you know very much.

ZHAO WEI: Thank you, Liu Dong. We still have one item to go. The last session for this morning plenary, we would like a take an opportunity to thank our top sponsors by awarding them certificates. If I could ask them to join us on stage. Paul from APNIC will join me now up on stage. The first award is for China Mobile.

A big round of applause for China Mobile.


Can I have someone from China Telecom? OK.

A round of applause for this moment. Thank you.


A representative from China Unicom. A big round of applause.


Last but not least, one representative from .Asia. OK. Thankyou. All the top sponsors for their general supporting of this meeting. Thank you.

Before the tea break, there is an announcement. Because we are a bit late, so we're going to delay the next session APOPS till 11:30. You still have a half hour tea break. Please do come back to the room by 11:30. And the next session will start at 1 o'clock. We will run over half an hour of your lunch, if you don't really mind about that. Thank you, everyone, this morning for the morning plenary. Thanks.